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It derives from the monks of the Benedictine order , who ran a monastery at the place that was later to become the Old Town of Munich.

The town is first mentioned as forum apud Munichen in the Augsburg arbitration of June 14, by Holy Roman Emperor Friedrich I. The name in modern German is München , but this has been variously translated in different languages: in English, French and various other languages as "Munich", in Italian as "Monaco di Baviera", in Portuguese as "Munique".

The ancient Roman road, Via Julia, which connected Augsburg and Salzburg, crossed over the Isar River south of modern-day Munich, at the towns of Baierbrunn and Gauting.

In the 6th Century and beyond, various ethnic groups, such as the Baiuvarii, populated the area around what is now modern Munich, such as in Johanneskirchen, Bogenhausen and Pasing.

The first known Christian church was built ca. The first known settlement in the area was of Benedictine monks on the Salt road between Augsburg and Salzburg, crossing the Isar River.

The foundation date is not considered the year , the date the city was first mentioned in a document. The document was signed in Augsburg.

But during the archaeological excavations at Marienhof in advance of the expansion of the S-Bahn from , shards of vessels from the 11th century were found, which prove again that the settlement of Munich must be older than their first documentary mention in In Munich received city status and fortification.

In with the trial of Henry the Lion, Otto I Wittelsbach became Duke of Bavaria, and Munich was handed to the Bishop of Freising. Wittelsbach's heirs, the Wittelsbach dynasty , ruled Bavaria until In , Munich was transferred to Otto II Wittelsbach and in , when the Duchy of Bavaria was split in two, Munich became the ducal residence of Upper Bavaria.

Duke Louis IV , a native of Munich, was elected German king in and crowned as Holy Roman Emperor in He strengthened the city's position by granting it the salt monopoly, thus assuring it of additional income.

In the late 15th century, Munich underwent a revival of Gothic arts : the Old Town Hall was enlarged, and Munich's largest Gothic church — the Frauenkirche — now a cathedral, was constructed in only 20 years, starting in When Bavaria was reunited in , Munich became its capital.

The arts and politics became increasingly influenced by the court see Orlando di Lasso and Heinrich Schütz. During the 16th century, Munich was a centre of the German counter reformation , and also of renaissance arts.

Duke Wilhelm V commissioned the Jesuit Michaelskirche , which became a centre for the counter-reformation, and also built the Hofbräuhaus for brewing brown beer in The Catholic League was founded in Munich in In , during the Thirty Years' War , Munich became an electoral residence when Maximilian I, Duke of Bavaria was invested with the electoral dignity , but in the city was occupied by Gustav II Adolph of Sweden.

When the bubonic plague broke out in and , about one-third of the population died. Under the regency of the Bavarian electors, Munich was an important centre of Baroque life, but also had to suffer under Habsburg occupations in and In the city became the capital of the new Kingdom of Bavaria , with the state's parliament the Landtag and the new archdiocese of Munich and Freising being located in the city.

Munich's annual Beer Festival, Oktoberfest, has its origins from a royal wedding in October The fields are now part of the 'Theresienwiese' near downtown.

In , Landshut University was moved to Munich. Many of the city's finest buildings belong to this period and were built under the first three Bavarian kings.

Especially Ludwig I rendered outstanding services to Munich's status as a centre of the arts, attracting numerous artists and enhancing the city's architectural substance with grand boulevards and buildings.

On the other hand, Ludwig II , known the world over as the fairytale king, was mostly aloof from his capital and focused more on his fanciful castles in the Bavarian countryside.

Nevertheless, his patronage of Richard Wagner secured his posthumous reputation, as do his castles, which still generate significant tourist income for Bavaria.

Later, Prince Regent Luitpold 's years as regent were marked by tremendous artistic and cultural activity in Munich, enhancing its status as a cultural force of global importance see Franz von Stuck and Der Blaue Reiter.

Following the outbreak of World War I in , life in Munich became very difficult, as the Allied blockade of Germany led to food and fuel shortages.

During French air raids in , three bombs fell on Munich. After World War I, the city was at the centre of substantial political unrest.

In November , on the eve of the German revolution, Ludwig III and his family fled the city. After the murder of the first republican premier of Bavaria Kurt Eisner in February by Anton Graf von Arco auf Valley , the Bavarian Soviet Republic was proclaimed.

When Communists took power, Lenin , who had lived in Munich some years before, sent a congratulatory telegram, but the Soviet Republic was ended on 3 May by the Freikorps.

While the republican government had been restored, Munich became a hotbed of extremist politics, among which Adolf Hitler and the National Socialists soon rose to prominence.

In , Adolf Hitler and his supporters, who were concentrated in Munich, staged the Beer Hall Putsch , an attempt to overthrow the Weimar Republic and seize power.

The revolt failed, resulting in Hitler's arrest and the temporary crippling of the Nazi Party NSDAP. The city again became important to the Nazis when they took power in Germany in The party created its first concentration camp at Dachau , 16 kilometres 9.

Because of its importance to the rise of National Socialism, Munich was referred to as the Hauptstadt der Bewegung "Capital of the Movement".

The NSDAP headquarters were in Munich and many Führerbauten " Führer buildings" were built around the Königsplatz , some of which still survive.

The city was the site where the Munich Agreement signed between Britain and France with Germany as part of the Franco-British policy of appeasement.

The British Prime Minister Neville Chamberlain assented to the German annexation of Czechoslovakia 's Sudetenland region in the hopes of satisfying Hitler's territorial expansion.

Munich was the base of the White Rose , a student resistance movement from June to February The core members were arrested and executed following a distribution of leaflets in Munich University by Hans and Sophie Scholl.

The city was heavily damaged by Allied bombing during World War II , with 71 air raids over five years. After US occupation in , Munich was completely rebuilt following a meticulous plan, which preserved its pre-war street grid.

In , Munich's population surpassed one million. The city continued to play a highly significant role in the German economy, politics and culture, giving rise to its nickname Heimliche Hauptstadt "secret capital" in the decades after World War II.

Since , Munich has been the host city for annual conferences on international security policy. Munich was the site of the Summer Olympics , during which 11 Israeli athletes were murdered by Palestinian terrorists in the Munich massacre , when gunmen from the Palestinian " Black September " group took hostage members of the Israeli Olympic team.

Most Munich residents enjoy a high quality of life. Mercer HR Consulting consistently rates the city among the top 10 cities with the highest quality of life worldwide — a survey ranked Munich as 4th.

Environmental pollution is low, although as of [update] the city council is concerned about levels of particulate matter PM , especially along the city's major thoroughfares.

Since the enactment of EU legislation concerning the concentration of particulate in the air, environmental groups such as Greenpeace have staged large protest rallies to urge the city council and the State government to take a harder stance on pollution.

For its high quality of life and safety, the city has been nicknamed "Toytown" [22] among the English-speaking residents. German inhabitants call it "Millionendorf", an expression which means "village of a million people".

Due to the high standard of living in and the thriving economy of the city and the region, there was an influx of people and Munich's population surpassed 1.

Munich was one of the host cities for the FIFA World Cup. The local rivers are the Isar and the Würm.

Munich is situated in the Northern Alpine Foreland. The northern part of this sandy plateau includes a highly fertile flint area which is no longer affected by the folding processes found in the Alps, while the southern part is covered with morainic hills.

Between these are fields of fluvio-glacial out-wash, such as around Munich. Wherever these deposits get thinner, the ground water can permeate the gravel surface and flood the area, leading to marshes as in the north of Munich.

By Köppen classification templates and updated data the climate is oceanic Cfb , independent of the isotherm but with some humid continental Dfb features like warm to hot summers and cold winters, but without permanent snow cover.

Studies of adaptation to climate change and extreme events are carried out, one of them is the Isar Plan of the EU Adaptation Climate.

The city center lies between both climates, while the airport of Munich has a humid continental climate.

The warmest month, on average, is July. The coolest is January. Showers and thunderstorms bring the highest average monthly precipitation in late spring and throughout the summer.

The most precipitation occurs in July, on average. Winter tends to have less precipitation, the least in February. The higher elevation and proximity to the Alps cause the city to have more rain and snow than many other parts of Germany.

The Alps affect the city's climate in other ways too; for example, the warm downhill wind from the Alps föhn wind , which can raise temperatures sharply within a few hours even in the winter.

Being at the centre of Europe, Munich is subject to many climatic influences, so that weather conditions there are more variable than in other European cities, especially those further west and south of the Alps.

At Munich's official weather stations , the highest and lowest temperatures ever measured are The data is supposed to be used to create a plan for action for adapting the city to better deal with climate change as well as an integrated action program for climate protection in Munich.

With the help of those programs issues regarding spatial planning and settlement density, the development of buildings and green spaces as well as plans for functioning ventilation in a cityscape can be monitored and managed.

From only 24, inhabitants in , the city population doubled about every 30 years. It was , in , , in and , in Since then, Munich has become Germany's third-largest city.

In July , Munich had 1. The largest foreign resident groups by 31 December [34]. As in the rest of Germany, the Catholic and Protestant churches have experienced a continuous decline in membership.

As of 31 December , There is also a small Old Catholic parish and an English-speaking parish of the Episcopal Church in the city.

According to Munich Statistical Office, in about 8. As the capital of Bavaria, Munich is an important political centre for both the state and country as a whole.

It is the seat of the Landtag of Bavaria , the State Chancellery , and all state departments. Several national and international authorities are located in Munich, including the Federal Finance Court of Germany and the European Patent Office.

The current mayor of Munich is Dieter Reiter of the centre-left Social Democratic Party SPD , who was elected in and re-elected in Munich has a much stronger left-wing tradition than the rest of the state, which has been dominated by the conservative Christian Social Union in Bavaria CSU on a federal, state, and local level since the establishment of the Federal Republic in Munich, by contrast, has been governed by the SPD for all but six years since As of the local elections, green and centre-left parties also hold a majority in the city council Stadtrat.

The most recent mayoral election was held on 15 March , with a runoff held on 29 March, and the results were as follows:.

The Munich city council Stadtrat governs the city alongside the Mayor. The most recent city council election was held on 15 March , and the results were as follows:.

Munich is twinned with the following cities date of agreement shown in parentheses : [38] Edinburgh , Scotland [39] [40] , Verona , Italy [41] , Bordeaux , France [42] [43] , Sapporo , Japan , Cincinnati , Ohio, United States , Kyiv , Ukraine and Harare , Zimbabwe Since the administrative reform in , Munich is divided into 25 boroughs or Stadtbezirke , which themselves consist of smaller quarters.

Allach-Untermenzing 23 , Altstadt-Lehel 1 , Aubing-Lochhausen-Langwied 22 , Au-Haidhausen 5 , Berg am Laim 14 , Bogenhausen 13 , Feldmoching-Hasenbergl 24 , Hadern 20 , Laim 25 , Ludwigsvorstadt-Isarvorstadt 2 , Maxvorstadt 3 , Milbertshofen-Am Hart 11 , Moosach 10 , Neuhausen-Nymphenburg 9 , Obergiesing 17 , Pasing-Obermenzing 21 , Ramersdorf-Perlach 16 , Schwabing-Freimann 12 , Schwabing-West 4 , Schwanthalerhöhe 8 , Sendling 6 , Sendling-Westpark 7 , Thalkirchen-Obersendling-Forstenried-Fürstenried-Solln 19 , Trudering-Riem 15 and Untergiesing-Harlaching The city has an eclectic mix of historic and modern architecture, because historic buildings destroyed in World War II were reconstructed, and new landmarks were built.

A survey by the Society's Centre for Sustainable Destinations for the National Geographic Traveller chose over historic destinations around the world and ranked Munich 30th.

At the centre of the city is the Marienplatz — a large open square named after the Mariensäule , a Marian column in its centre — with the Old and the New Town Hall.

Its tower contains the Rathaus-Glockenspiel. Three gates of the demolished medieval fortification survive — the Isartor in the east, the Sendlinger Tor in the south and the Karlstor in the west of the inner city.

The Karlstor leads up to the Stachus , a square dominated by the Justizpalast Palace of Justice and a fountain. The Peterskirche close to Marienplatz is the oldest church of the inner city.

It was first built during the Romanesque period, and was the focus of the early monastic settlement in Munich before the city's official foundation in Nearby St.

Peter the Gothic hall-church Heiliggeistkirche The Church of the Holy Spirit was converted to baroque style from onwards and looks down upon the Viktualienmarkt.

The Frauenkirche serves as the cathedral for the Catholic Archdiocese of Munich and Freising. The nearby Michaelskirche is the largest renaissance church north of the Alps, while the Theatinerkirche is a basilica in Italianate high baroque, which had a major influence on Southern German baroque architecture.

Its dome dominates the Odeonsplatz. Other baroque churches in the inner city include the Bürgersaalkirche , the Trinity Church and the St.

Anna Damenstiftskirche. The Asamkirche was endowed and built by the Brothers Asam , pioneering artists of the rococo period. The large Residenz palace complex begun in on the edge of Munich's Old Town, Germany's largest urban palace, ranks among Europe's most significant museums of interior decoration.

Next door to the Residenz the neo-classical opera, the National Theatre was erected. Among the baroque and neoclassical mansions which still exist in Munich are the Palais Porcia , the Palais Preysing , the Palais Holnstein and the Prinz-Carl-Palais.

All mansions are situated close to the Residenz, same as the Alte Hof , a medieval castle and first residence of the Wittelsbach dukes in Munich.

Lehel, a middle-class quarter east of the Altstadt, is characterised by numerous well-preserved townhouses.

The St. Anna im Lehel is the first rococo church in Bavaria. Lukas is the largest Protestant Church in Munich.

Four grand royal avenues of the 19th century with official buildings connect Munich's inner city with its then-suburbs:. Boniface's Abbey was erected.

The area around Königsplatz is home to the Kunstareal , Munich's gallery and museum quarter as described below. Louis church , the Bavarian State Library and numerous state ministries and palaces.

The southern part of the avenue was constructed in Italian renaissance style, while the north is strongly influenced by Italian Romanesque architecture.

The avenue is framed by elaborately structured neo-Gothic buildings which house, among others, the Schauspielhaus , the Building of the district government of Upper Bavaria and the Museum of Ethnology.

After crossing the river Isar, the avenue circles the Maximilianeum , which houses the state parliament. Many museums are on the avenue, such as the Haus der Kunst , the Bavarian National Museum and the Schackgalerie.

The avenue crosses the Isar and circles the Friedensengel monument, then passing the Villa Stuck and Hitler's old apartment.

The Prinzregententheater is at Prinzregentenplatz further to the east. In Schwabing and Maxvorstadt , many beautiful streets with continuous rows of Gründerzeit buildings can be found.

Numerous tiny alleys and shady lanes connect the larger streets and little plazas of the area, conveying the legendary artist's quarter's flair and atmosphere convincingly like it was at the turn of the 20th century.

One of Bogenhausen's most beautiful buildings is Villa Stuck , famed residence of painter Franz von Stuck. Two large baroque palaces in Nymphenburg and Oberschleissheim are reminders of Bavaria's royal past.

Schloss Fürstenried Fürstenried Palace , a baroque palace of similar structure to Nymphenburg but of much smaller size, was erected around the same time in the south west of Munich.

The second large baroque residence is Schloss Schleissheim Schleissheim Palace , located in the suburb of Oberschleissheim , a palace complex encompassing three separate residences: Altes Schloss Schleissheim the old palace , Neues Schloss Schleissheim the new palace and Schloss Lustheim Lustheim Palace.

Most parts of the palace complex serve as museums and art galleries. Deutsches Museum 's Flugwerft Schleissheim flight exhibition centre is located nearby, on the Schleissheim Special Landing Field.

The Bavaria statue before the neo-classical Ruhmeshalle is a monumental, bronze sand-cast 19th-century statue at Theresienwiese.

The Grünwald castle is the only medieval castle in the Munich area which still exists. St Michael in Berg am Laim is a church in the suburbs. Another church of Johann Michael Fischer is St George in Bogenhausen.

Most of the boroughs have parish churches which originate from the Middle Ages, such as the church of pilgrimage St Mary in Ramersdorf. The oldest church within the city borders is Heilig Kreuz in Fröttmaning next to the Allianz-Arena, known for its Romanesque fresco.

Especially in its suburbs, Munich features a wide and diverse array of modern architecture, although strict culturally sensitive height limitations for buildings have limited the construction of skyscrapers to avoid a loss of views to the distant Bavarian Alps.

Most high-rise buildings are clustered at the northern edge of Munich in the skyline, like the Hypo-Haus , the Arabella High-Rise Building , the Highlight Towers , Uptown Munich , Münchner Tor and the BMW Headquarters next to the Olympic Park.

Several other high-rise buildings are located near the city centre and on the Siemens campus in southern Munich. A landmark of modern Munich is also the architecture of the sport stadiums as described below.

In Fasangarten is the former McGraw Kaserne , a former US army base, near Stadelheim Prison. Munich is a densely-built city but has numerous public parks.

The Englischer Garten , close to the city centre and covering an area of 3. It contains a naturist nudist area, numerous bicycle and jogging tracks as well as bridle-paths.

It was designed and laid out by Benjamin Thompson , Count Rumford, both for pleasure and as a work area for the city's vagrants and homeless.

Nowadays it is entirely a park, its southern half being dominated by wide open areas, hills, monuments and beach-like stretches along the streams Eisbach and Schwabinger Bach.

In contrast, its less-frequented northern part is much quieter, with many old trees and thick undergrowth. Multiple beer gardens can be found in both parts of the Englischer Garten, the most well known being located at the Chinese Pagoda.

Other large green spaces are the modern Olympiapark , the Westpark , and the parks of Nymphenburg Palace with the Botanischer Garten München-Nymphenburg to the north , and Schleissheim Palace.

The city's oldest park is the Hofgarten , near the Residenz, dating back to the 16th century. The site of the largest beer garden in town, the former royal Hirschgarten was founded in for deer, which still live there.

The city's zoo is the Tierpark Hellabrunn near the Flaucher Island in the Isar in the south of the city.

Another notable park is Ostpark located in the Ramersdorf-Perlach borough which also houses the Michaelibad, the largest water park in Munich.

Munich is home to several professional football teams including Bayern Munich , Germany's most successful club and a multiple UEFA Champions League winner.

Other notable clubs include Munich , who were long time their rivals on a somewhat equal footing, but currently play in the 3rd Division 3.

Liga along with another former Bundesliga club SpVgg Unterhaching. FC Bayern Munich Basketball is currently playing in the Beko Basket Bundesliga.

The city hosted the final stages of the FIBA EuroBasket , where the German national basketball team won the gold medal. The city's ice hockey club is EHC Red Bull München who play in the Deutsche Eishockey Liga.

The team has won three DEL Championships, in , and Munich hosted the Summer Olympics ; the Munich Massacre took place in the Olympic village.

It was one of the host cities for the Football World Cup , which was not held in Munich's Olympic Stadium , but in a new football specific stadium , the Allianz Arena.

Munich bid to host the Winter Olympic Games , but lost to Pyeongchang. Regular annual road running events in Munich are the Munich Marathon in October, the Stadtlauf end of June, the company run B2Run in July, the New Year's Run on 31 December, the Spartan Race Sprint, the Olympia Alm Crosslauf and the Bestzeitenmarathon.

Public sporting facilities in Munich include ten indoor swimming pools [47] and eight outdoor swimming pools, [48] which are operated by the Munich City Utilities SWM communal company.

Further, swimming within Munich's city limits is also possible in several artificial lakes such as for example the Riemer See or the Langwieder lake district.

Munich has a reputation as a surfing hotspot, offering the world's best known river surfing spot, the Eisbach wave, which is located at the southern edge of the Englischer Garten park and used by surfers day and night and throughout the year.

Austro-Bavarian has no official status by the Bavarian authorities or local government, yet is recognised by the SIL and has its own ISO code.

The Deutsches Museum or German Museum, located on an island in the River Isar, is the largest and one of the oldest science museums in the world.

Three redundant exhibition buildings that are under a protection order were converted to house the Verkehrsmuseum, which houses the land transport collections of the Deutsches Museum.

Deutsches Museum's Flugwerft Schleissheim flight exhibition centre is located nearby, on the Schleissheim Special Landing Field.

Several non-centralised museums many of those are public collections at Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität show the expanded state collections of palaeontology , geology, mineralogy , [53] zoology , botany and anthropology.

The city has several important art galleries , most of which can be found in the Kunstareal , including the Alte Pinakothek , the Neue Pinakothek , the Pinakothek der Moderne and the Museum Brandhorst.

The Alte Pinakothek contains a treasure trove of the works of European masters between the 14th and 18th centuries. The collection reflects the eclectic tastes of the Wittelsbachs over four centuries, and is sorted by schools over two floors.

Major displays include Albrecht Dürer 's Christ-like Self-Portrait , his Four Apostles , Raphael 's paintings The Canigiani Holy Family and Madonna Tempi as well as Peter Paul Rubens large Judgment Day.

The gallery houses one of the world's most comprehensive Rubens collections. The Lenbachhaus houses works by the group of Munich-based modernist artists known as Der Blaue Reiter The Blue Rider.

An important collection of Greek and Roman art is held in the Glyptothek and the Staatliche Antikensammlung State Antiquities Collection.

King Ludwig I managed to acquire such pieces as the Medusa Rondanini , the Barberini Faun and figures from the Temple of Aphaea on Aegina for the Glyptothek.

Another important museum in the Kunstareal is the Egyptian Museum. The gothic Morris dancers of Erasmus Grasser are exhibited in the Munich City Museum in the old gothic arsenal building in the inner city.

The nearby Schackgalerie is an important gallery of German 19th-century paintings. Munich is a major international cultural centre and has played host to many prominent composers including Orlando di Lasso , W.

Mozart , Carl Maria von Weber , Richard Wagner , Gustav Mahler , Richard Strauss , Max Reger and Carl Orff. Some of classical music's best-known pieces have been created in and around Munich by composers born in the area, for example, Richard Strauss's tone poem Also sprach Zarathustra or Carl Orff's Carmina Burana.

At the Nationaltheater several of Richard Wagner 's operas were premiered under the patronage of Ludwig II of Bavaria.

It is the home of the Bavarian State Opera and the Bavarian State Orchestra. Many operas were staged there, including the premiere of Mozart's Idomeneo in The Gärtnerplatz Theatre is a ballet and musical state theatre while another opera house, the Prinzregententheater , has become the home of the Bavarian Theatre Academy and the Munich Chamber Orchestra.

The modern Gasteig centre houses the Munich Philharmonic Orchestra. The third orchestra in Munich with international importance is the Bavarian Radio Symphony Orchestra.

Its primary concert venue is the Herkulessaal in the former city royal residence, the Munich Residenz. A stage for shows, big events and musicals is the Deutsche Theater.

It is Germany's largest theatre for guest performances. Munich's contributions to modern popular music are often overlooked in favour of its strong association with classical music, but they are numerous: the city has had a strong music scene in the s and s, with many internationally renowned bands and musicians frequently performing in its clubs.

Furthermore, Munich was the centre of Krautrock in southern Germany, with many important bands such as Amon Düül II , Embryo or Popol Vuh hailing from the city.

In the s, the Musicland Studios developed into one of the most prominent recording studios in the world, with bands such as the Rolling Stones , Led Zeppelin , Deep Purple and Queen recording albums there.

Munich also played a significant role in the development of electronic music, with genre pioneer Giorgio Moroder , who invented synth disco and electronic dance music , and Donna Summer , one of disco music's most important performers, both living and working in the city.

In the late s, Electroclash was substantially co-invented if not even invented in Munich, when DJ Hell introduced and assembled international pioneers of this musical genre through his International DeeJay Gigolo Records label here.

Music is so important in the Bavarian capital that the city hall gives permissions every day to ten musicians for performing in the streets around Marienplatz.

This is how performers such as Olga Kholodnaya and Alex Jacobowitz are entertaining the locals and the tourists every day.

Next to the Bavarian Staatsschauspiel in the Residenz Theatre Residenztheater , the Munich Kammerspiele in the Schauspielhaus is one of the most important German language theatres in the world.

Since Gotthold Ephraim Lessing 's premieres in many important writers have staged their plays in Munich such as Christian Friedrich Hebbel , Henrik Ibsen and Hugo von Hofmannsthal.

The city is known as the second largest publishing centre in the world around publishing houses have offices in the city , and many national and international publications are published in Munich, such as Arts in Munich, LAXMag and Prinz.

At the turn of the 20th century, Munich, and especially its suburb of Schwabing , was the preeminent cultural metropolis of Germany.

Its importance as a centre for both literature and the fine arts was second to none in Europe, with numerous German and non-German artists moving there.

For example, Wassily Kandinsky chose Munich over Paris to study at the Akademie der Bildenden Künste München , and, along with many other painters and writers living in Schwabing at that time, had a profound influence on modern art.

Prominent literary figures worked in Munich especially during the final decades of the Kingdom of Bavaria, the so-called Prinzregentenzeit literally "prince regent's time" under the reign of Luitpold, Prince Regent of Bavaria , a period often described as a cultural Golden Age for both Munich and Bavaria as a whole.

Among them were luminaries such as Thomas Mann , Heinrich Mann , Paul Heyse , Rainer Maria Rilke , Ludwig Thoma , Fanny zu Reventlow , Oskar Panizza , Gustav Meyrink , Max Halbe , Erich Mühsam and Frank Wedekind.

For a short while, Vladimir Lenin lived in Schwabing, where he wrote and published his most important work, What Is to Be Done?

Its caricatures and biting satirical attacks on Wilhelmine German society were the result of countless of collaborative efforts by many of the best visual artists and writers from Munich and elsewhere.

The period immediately before World War I saw continued economic and cultural prominence for the city. Thomas Mann wrote in his novella Gladius Dei about this period: "München leuchtete" literally "Munich shone".

Munich remained a centre of cultural life during the Weimar period, with figures such as Lion Feuchtwanger , Bertolt Brecht , Peter Paul Althaus , Stefan George , Ricarda Huch , Joachim Ringelnatz , Oskar Maria Graf , Annette Kolb , Ernst Toller , Hugo Ball and Klaus Mann adding to the already established big names.

Karl Valentin was Germany's most important cabaret performer and comedian and is to this day well-remembered and beloved as a cultural icon of his hometown.

Between and , he wrote and performed in many absurdist sketches and short films that were highly influential, earning him the nickname of "Charlie Chaplin of Germany".

Many of Valentin's works wouldn't be imaginable without his congenial female partner Liesl Karlstadt , who often played male characters to hilarious effect in their sketches.

After World War II, Munich soon again became a focal point of the German literary scene and remains so to this day, with writers as diverse as Wolfgang Koeppen , Erich Kästner , Eugen Roth , Alfred Andersch , Elfriede Jelinek , Hans Magnus Enzensberger , Michael Ende , Franz Xaver Kroetz , Gerhard Polt , John Vincent Palatine and Patrick Süskind calling the city their home.

Munich had already become an important place for painters like Carl Rottmann , Lovis Corinth , Wilhelm von Kaulbach , Carl Spitzweg , Franz von Lenbach , Franz von Stuck , Karl Piloty and Wilhelm Leibl when Der Blaue Reiter The Blue Rider , a group of expressionist artists, was established in Munich in The city was home to the Blue Rider's painters Paul Klee , Wassily Kandinsky , Alexej von Jawlensky , Gabriele Münter , Franz Marc , August Macke and Alfred Kubin.

Kandinsky's first abstract painting was created in Schwabing. Munich was and in some cases, still is home to many of the most important authors of the New German Cinema movement, including Rainer Werner Fassbinder , Werner Herzog , Edgar Reitz and Herbert Achternbusch.

In , the Filmverlag der Autoren was founded, cementing the city's role in the movement's history. Munich served as the location for many of Fassbinder's films, among them Ali: Fear Eats the Soul.

The Hotel Deutsche Eiche near Gärtnerplatz was somewhat like a centre of operations for Fassbinder and his "clan" of actors. New German Cinema is considered by far the most important artistic movement in German cinema history since the era of German Expressionism in the s.

In , the Bavaria Film Studios were founded, which developed into one of Europe's largest film studios. Directors like Alfred Hitchcock , Billy Wilder , Orson Welles , John Huston , Ingmar Bergman , Stanley Kubrick , Claude Chabrol , Fritz Umgelter , Rainer Werner Fassbinder , Wolfgang Petersen and Wim Wenders made films there.

Munich remains one of the centres of the German film and entertainment industry. Annual " High End Munich" trade show. April and May, Theresienwiese : [56] Held for two weeks from the end of April to the beginning of May, [56] Frühlingsfest celebrates spring and the new local spring beers, and is commonly referred to as the "little sister of Oktoberfest".

May, August, and October, Mariahilfplatz : [56] Auer Dult is Europe's largest jumble sale , with fairs of its kind dating back to the 14th century. It has taken place over nine days each, three times a year.

July and December, Olympia Park: [62] For three weeks in July, and then three weeks in December, Tollwood showcases fine and performing arts with live music, circus acts , and several lanes of booths selling handmade crafts, as well as organic international cuisine.

September and October, Theresienwiese : [56] The largest beer festival in the world, Munich's Oktoberfest runs for 16—18 days from the end of September through early October.

Oktoberfest hosts caterers and employees 13, people. November and December, city-wide: [56] Munich's Christmas Markets, or Christkindlmärkte , are held throughout the city from late November until Christmas Eve , the largest spanning the Marienplatz and surrounding streets.

Mini-Munich Late-July to mid-August, city-wide: Mini-Munich provides kids ages 7—15 with the opportunity to participate in a spielstadt , the German term for a miniature city composed almost entirely of children.

The experimental game was invented in Munich in the s and has since spread to other countries like Egypt and China. Since , historically interesting places in Munich can be explored via the cultural history trails KulturGeschichtsPfade.

The Munich cuisine contributes to the Bavarian cuisine. Münchner Weisswurst "white sausage" was invented here in It is a Munich speciality.

Traditionally eaten only before noon — a tradition dating to a time before refrigerators — these morsels are often served with sweet mustard and freshly baked pretzels.

Helles , a pale lager with a translucent gold colour is the most popular Munich beer today, although it's not old only introduced in and is the result of a change in beer tastes.

Helles has largely replaced Munich's dark beer, Dunkles , which gets its colour from roasted malt. It was the typical beer in Munich in the 19th century, but it is now more of a speciality.

It is dark amber in colour and has a heavy malty taste. It is available and is sold particularly during the Lenten Starkbierzeit strong beer season , which begins on or before St.

Joseph's Day 19 March. The beer served at Oktoberfest is a special type of Märzen beer with a higher alcohol content than regular Helles.

Biergärten beer gardens are popular fixtures of Munich's gastronomic landscape. They are central to the city's culture and serve as a kind of melting pot for members of all walks of life, for locals, expatriates and tourists alike.

It is allowed to bring one's own food to a beer garden, however, it is forbidden to bring one's own drinks.

There are many smaller beer gardens and around twenty major ones, providing at least a thousand seats, with four of the largest in the Englischer Garten : Chinesischer Turm Munich's second largest beer garden with 7, seats , Seehaus, Hirschau and Aumeister.

Nockherberg, Hofbräukeller not to be confused with the Hofbräuhaus and Löwenbräukeller are other beer gardens.

Hirschgarten is the largest beer garden in the world, with 8, seats. There are six main breweries in Munich: Augustiner-Bräu , Hacker-Pschorr , Hofbräu , Löwenbräu , Paulaner and Spaten-Franziskaner-Bräu separate brands Spaten and Franziskaner, the latter of which mainly for Weissbier.

Also much consumed, though not from Munich and thus without the right to have a tent at the Oktoberfest, are Tegernseer and Schneider Weisse , the latter of which has a major beer hall in Munich.

Smaller breweries are becoming more prevalent in Munich, such as Giesinger Bräu. The Circus Krone based in Munich is one of the largest circuses in Europe.

Nightlife in Munich is located mostly in the city centre Altstadt-Lehel and the boroughs Maxvorstadt , Ludwigsvorstadt-Isarvorstadt , Au-Haidhausen and Schwabing.

Between Sendlinger Tor and Maximiliansplatz lies the so-called Feierbanane party banana , a roughly banana-shaped unofficial party zone spanning 1.

The Feierbanane has become the mainstream focus of Munich's nightlife and tends to become crowded, especially at weekends.

It has also been the subject of some debate among city officials because of alcohol-related security issues and the party zone's general impact on local residents as well as day-time businesses.

Ludwigsvorstadt-Isarvorstadt 's two main quarters, Gärtnerplatzviertel and Glockenbachviertel, are both considered decidedly less mainstream than most other nightlife hotspots in the city and are renowned for their many hip and laid back bars and clubs as well as for being Munich's main centres of gay culture.

On warm spring or summer nights, hundreds of young people gather at Gärtnerplatz to relax, talk with friends and drink beer.

Maxvorstadt has many smaller bars that are especially popular with university students, whereas Schwabing , once Munich's first and foremost party district with legendary clubs such as Big Apple, PN, Domicile, Hot Club, Piper Club, Tiffany, Germany's first large-scale disco Blow Up and the underwater nightclub Yellow Submarine , [54] as well as many bars such as Schwabinger 7 or Schwabinger Podium, has lost much of its nightlife activity in the last decades, mainly due to gentrification and the resulting high rents.

It has become the city's most coveted and expensive residential district, attracting affluent citizens with little interest in partying.

Since the mids, the Kunstpark Ost and its successor Kultfabrik, a former industrial complex that was converted to a large party area near München Ostbahnhof in Berg am Laim , hosted more than 30 clubs and was especially popular among younger people and residents of the metropolitan area surrounding Munich.

Apart from the Kultfarbik and the smaller Optimolwerke, there is a wide variety of establishments in the urban parts of nearby Haidhausen.

Before the Kunstpark Ost, there had already been an accumulation of internationally known nightclubs in the remains of the abandoned former Munich-Riem Airport.

Munich nightlife tends to change dramatically and quickly. Establishments open and close every year, and due to gentrification and the overheated housing market many survive only a few years, while others last longer.

Munich has two directly connected gay quarters, which basically can be seen as one: Gärtnerplatzviertel and Glockenbachviertel, both part of the Ludwigsvorstadt-Isarvorstadt district.

Freddie Mercury had an apartment near the Gärtnerplatz and transsexual icon Romy Haag had a club in the city centre for many years.

Munich has more than night clubs and thousands of bars and restaurants within city limits. Some notable nightclubs are: popular techno clubs are Blitz Club , Harry Klein, Rote Sonne, Bahnwärter Thiel , Bob Beaman, Pimpernel, Charlie and Palais.

Popular mixed music clubs are Call me Drella, Cord, Wannda Circus, Tonhalle, Backstage, Muffathalle, Ampere, Pacha, P1, Zenith , Minna Thiel and the party ship Alte Utting.

Some notable bars pubs are located all over the city are Charles Schumann's Cocktail Bar, Havana Club, Sehnsucht, Bar Centrale, Ksar, Holy Home, Eat the Rich, Negroni, Die Goldene Bar and Bei Otto a bavarian-style pub.

Munich is a leading location for science and research with a long list of Nobel Prize laureates from Wilhelm Conrad Röntgen in to Theodor Hänsch in Munich has become a spiritual centre already since the times of Emperor Louis IV when philosophers like Michael of Cesena , Marsilius of Padua and William of Ockham were protected at the emperor's court.

The Ludwig Maximilian University LMU and the Technische Universität München TU or TUM , were two of the first three German universities to be awarded the title elite university by a selection committee composed of academics and members of the Ministries of Education and Research of the Federation and the German states Länder.

Only the two Munich universities and the Technical University of Karlsruhe now part of Karlsruhe Institute of Technology have held this honour, and the implied greater chances of attracting research funds, since the first evaluation round in The Max Planck Society , an independent German non-profit research organisation, has its administrative headquarters in Munich.

The following institutes are located in the Munich area:. The Fraunhofer Society , the German non-profit research organization for applied research, has its headquarters in Munich.

Munich has the strongest economy of any German city [75] and the lowest unemployment rate 5. Munich topped the ranking of the magazine Capital in February for the economic prospects between and in 60 German cities.

Munich is a financial center and a global city and holds the headquarters of many companies. This includes more companies listed by the DAX than any other German city, as well as the German or European headquarters of many foreign companies such as McDonald's and Microsoft.

One of the best known newly established Munich companies is Flixbus. The breakdown by cities proper not metropolitan areas of Global cities listed Munich in 8th position in Munich is also the home of the headquarters of many other large companies such as the injection moulding machine manufacturer Krauss-Maffei , the camera and lighting manufacturer Arri , the semiconductor firm Infineon Technologies headquartered in the suburban town of Neubiberg , lighting giant Osram , as well as the German or European headquarters of many foreign companies such as Microsoft.

Munich has significance as a financial centre second only to Frankfurt , being home of HypoVereinsbank and the Bayerische Landesbank.

It outranks Frankfurt though as home of insurance companies such as Allianz insurance and Munich Re re-insurance.

Munich est une des villes allemandes les plus vastes en superficie. Aux alentours de Munich se trouvent un grand nombre de lacs, par exemple le Tegernsee , l' Ammersee , Wörthsee ou le Starnberger See.

La ville de Munich se trouve dans une zone de transition entre le climat humide atlantique et le climat sec continental. D'autres facteurs influant sur le climat sont les Alpes et le Danube.

En raison de cette configuration, le temps est relativement changeant. Frauenkirche et nouvelle mairie. Marienplatz vue de la tour de la Frauenkirche.

Les couleurs de la ville sont le noir et le jaune. Il s'agit des bains publics les plus anciens de Munich style Art nouveau. Müllersches Volksbad Bains populaires Müller.

Photo juillet Le domaine olympique comprend aussi l'Olympiaberg la montagne olympique , colline artificielle construite avec les gravas des bombardements de la Seconde Guerre mondiale.

La plus vieille d'entre elles est la Fischbrunnen fontaine aux poissons sur la Marienplatz. Les trains de la S-Bahn sont produits par Alstom et Bombardier entre et Pour les transports individuels, des pistes cyclables existent dans toute la ville et de nombreux taxis circulent.

Des voies rapides font le tour de la ville, et sont actuellement en travaux pour certaines, afin de les rendre souterraines. De plus, le RadlRing Munich fait le tour de la ville.

Dans le classement des centres financiers les plus importants du monde, Munich occupe la 35e place en Elle est un des lieux les plus importants de la presse papier par exemple Burda Verlag avec Focus , Deutscher Taschenbuch Verlag , Langenscheidt Verlag , Süddeutscher Verlag.

La Tour chinoise dans le Jardin anglais. Tour Uptown Munich. Allianz Arena , stade des clubs professionnels de football de Munich. Jardin suspendu au centre commercial Fünf Höfe.

Palais du prince Charles Prinz-Carl-Palais. Wikimedia Commons Wikivoyage. Menu de navigation Espaces de noms Article Discussion.

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